Turkish Language Teaching in Bulgaria between 1944–1989
1944-1989 Yılları Arasında Bulgaristan'da Türkçe Eğitimi

Number of pages : 81-97


The Ottoman Empire settled Turks in Balkanic lands conquered as a result of expeditions to the West. In the end of Russo Turkish Wars between 1877-1878 Bulgarian territory was lost. The Turks who had been living in peace and serenity were obliged to leave their hometown in consequence of persecution which they were exposed to. Waves of immigration continued at intervals. No sooner had the regime changed in 1944 in Bulgaria than two hundred fifty thousand Turkish people who were the greatest obstacle against the desire of creating one and only nation were requested to migrate. In the end of a diplomatic note, Exchange and tension between Bulgaria and Turkey hundreds of thousands of Turks migrated to Turkey. Bulgarian government, who understood they were not able to throw Turks out of the Bulgaria, ceased the immigration. Taking advantage of Turkish language and Turkish Schools plan was commissioned in order to have Turks adopt the new regime and indoctrinate Communism to Turkey via Bulgarian Turks. During Chervenkhov ruling, the Turks were allowed to have Turkish Education and Turkish Publications freely so as to nurture Turks as citizens who were faithful to Socialist Regime. Turkish teachers were regarded as the key of educating Turkish students who adopted Marxist- Leninist ideology. However, this Free Education setting ended along with the rulers showed the regimes true colours in the period of Zhivkov. Turkish Education Institutions were closed in every level and Turkish teachers were dismissed. Turkish students were sustained unfair treatments in consequence of propagandas that were about these students had education in university with privileges and were dangerous. Turkish students’ books were collected and burned. In this study, the phases of Turkish Language Education in the period of Communist Regime in Bulgaria, the conversion in the system of Turkish Schools and the Bulgarian Government’s policy of turning Turks into Communist regime’s loyal citizens with the help of Turkish Publications were analyzed.


Turkish Language Education, Bulgaria, Turkey, Communism.


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