Tümüyle Kahoot: İngilizceyi Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğrenen Öğrenciler İçin Rekabetçi Öğrenmeyi Teşvik Etme

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Year-Number: 2020-8.4
Yayımlanma Tarihi: 2020-12-02 19:42:51.0
Language : English
Konu : Education, Language Learning
Number of pages: 305-318
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Abstract

Gelişen teknolojilerle birlikte oyunlar, PC'ler, tabletler ve cep telefonları gibi farklı cihazlarda birçok alternatif öğrenme yolları sunarak eğitim sektöründe öne çıkmaktadır. Oyunların aktif öğrenmeyi, eleştirel düşünme becerilerini, bilgi oluşturmayı, iş birliğini ve elektronik bilgi formlarına erişimi teşvik ettiği bir gerçektir (Ellis ve diğerleri, 2006). Oyunların sağladığı avantajlar göz önünde bulundurularak, bu çalışma bir dil öğrenme ve geliştirme oyunu olan Kahoot'un sınıfta kullanımının İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin İngilizce öğrenmeye olan ilgi ve motivasyonlarını üzerindeki etkisini ortaya koymak için yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın bir diğer amacı da İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin sınıfta Kahoot kullanılarak geliştirdikleri dil kazanımları hakkındaki görüşlerini ortaya çıkarmaktır. Çalışma aynı zamanda bu öğrencilerin Kahoot kullanımı sırasında yaşadıkları zorlukları ortaya çıkarmaya çalışmıştır. Çalışmanın katılımcıları, uygun örnekleme stratejisi ile seçilen 73 İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen öğrencidir. Araştırma sorularına yanıt bulmak için Bicen ve Kocakoyun (2018) ve Benhadj, Messaoudi, Nfissi (2019) 'den uyarlanmış bir anket ile yarı yapılandırılmış katılımcı görüşmeleri kullanılmıştır. Anket yoluyla elde edilen veriler SPSS 25 istatistik paketi kullanılarak analiz edilirken görüşme yoluyla elde edilen verilen kategorik içerik analizi stratejisi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın bulguları, Kahoot kullanımının İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin dil öğrenmeye olan ilgileri ve motivasyonlarını artırdığını ve öğrenciler için birçok dil faydası sağladığını ortaya koymuştur. Aynı zamanda Kahoot oturumlarının öğrencilerin dil bilgisi, kelime bilgisi ve okuduğunu anlama gibi dil alanlarını geliştirmelerine yardımcı olduğu doğrulanmıştır.

Keywords

Abstract

With developing technologies, games have become prominent in the education industry by providing many alternative learning opportunities on different devices such as PCs, tablets and mobile phones. It is a fact that games stimulate active learning, critical thinking skills, knowledge building, collaboration, and operative use and access to electronic forms of information (Ellis et al., 2006). Considering the advantages provided by games and gamification, this study was conducted to find out whether the use of Kahoot, a language learning and development game, in the classroom, enhance EFL students' engagement and motivation towards learning English. Another aim of the study was to uncover the views of EFL students about the language outcomes developed by using Kahoot in the classroom. The study also dealt with the challenges faced by EFL students during Kahoot implementation in the classroom. The participants of the study were 73 EFL students who were selected through the convenience sampling strategy. A questionnaire that was adapted from Bicen and Kocakoyun (2018) and Benhadj, Messaoudi, Nfissi (2019) and semi-structured interviews with the participants were used to find answers to the research questions. While the data obtained through the questionnaire was analyzed by using SPSS 25 statistical package, the data obtained from the semi-structured interviews were analyzed by adopting a categorical-content analysis strategy. The findings of the study indicated that using Kahoot enhanced EFL students' engagement and motivation towards language learning and provided many language benefits for the learners. It is also confirmed that Kahoot sessions helped learners develop their language areas such as grammar knowledge, vocabulary learning and reading comprehension.

Keywords


  • Gamification is a way of using the power provided by using games in different contexts. Deterding etal. (2011) define gamification as the use of game elements in non-gaming systems and state that it ismainly used to enhance user experience and user engagement. Gamification uses some elements ofgames, such as rewards, success, and competition, in a non-game context (Prince, 20 13). These elementsmay serve various purposes in due course of engaging the users with the pre-determined objectives. Asstated by Fitz-Walter, Tjondronegoro, and Wyeth (2011), gamification is used to motivate and helpstudents gain experience with the assistance of game elements. Gamification in education is a way ofusing games as educational tools to foster language learning. It makes use of gaming mechanics, suchas points, levels, or leaderboards, and applies these mechanics to create an entertaining and competitivelearning atmosphere. Yürük (2019) states that while learning a foreign language, these kinds of activitiesnurture learning and increase the pace of achieving learning outcomes. They also trigger the social and communicative skills of learners that are essential in the learning process.

  • Gamification in education might have many potential benefits for learners of a foreign language. Asclaimed by Vernon (cited in Karatekin, 2017), when young learners play a game, they focus on theactivity and continue gaining language subconsciously. Learning subconsciously may end up absorbinggrammatical structures better and more and long-term memorization of new vocabulary. In addition tothe improvement in grammar and vocabulary knowledge, gamification can also be used as a way toincrease language learning motivation for the learners. As described by Muntean (2011), gamificationcombines and fosters both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and elements of gamification such ascooperation, competition, sense of belonging, etc., foster intrinsic motivation, and elements such aspoints, levels, badges, and etc. foster extrinsic motivation. On the other hand, Huang and Soman (2013)

  • In the literature, there are many studies dealing with the influence of gamification on language learning,learner motivation and engagement. For example, a study conducted by Yıldırım (2017) demonstratedthat gamification-based teaching practices influenced students' achievement and their attitude towardthe lesson in the right way. In another study conducted by Dicheva et al. (2015), it was proven thatgamification led to higher engagement, increased attendance and participation for voluntary andinvoluntary activities and significantly increased the number of answers or contributions. Also, Cheong,Filippou and Cheong (2014) founded in their study that students' attitude towards gamification wasquite positive during the language learning process. In another study, Seixas, Gomes, and Filho (2016)uncovered that the more gamification elements implemented into the lesson, the more active the student became.

  • Kahoot is a popular gamification instrument that can be used as a foreign language learning andimprovement tool. It is a student reply system that engages students through game-like pre-made orimpromptu quizzes, discussions and surveys (Byrne, 2013). It is also a user-friendly software that isvery easy to access and use via various mobile devices for the learners. The application does not requirespecific software, knowledge or management, and the questions can be created in a short time and in asimple way. Another advantage of the software is that it is entirely free for the users, which increasesthe accessibility of the software for the interested students and the teachers. It also offers the opportunityto add multimedia materials such as video clips and podcasts to the questions. In addition, it is likelyto publish and share the created quizzes and edit quizzes made by others. With all of these facilities, itis an excellent way of increasing students' participation and improving the interaction between students.

  • The studies dealing with the effect of using Kahoot as an educational tool for language learners areincreasing in number. To start with, Plump and LaRosa (2017) found that Kahoot was practical forteachers to use in their classrooms and needed no prior training to use. Another study conducted byPede (2017) illustrated that the use of Kahoot increased students' focus and task behaviors, and theyliked playing Kahoot and found it easy to use. In addition, Bicen and Kocakoyun (2018) investigatedthe perception of the students, and the findings of the research showed that the Kahoot applicationcould be used efficiently for gamification of lessons, and this method made students more ambitiousand motivated. The study conducted by Yürük (2019) tried to find out whether Kahoot can be used asa review activity in foreign language classrooms and to learn students' perceptions about using thisapplication as supplementary teaching material. The findings specified that students managed toengage in the lessons, and they could master the target language effectively and enjoy learning Englishusing Kahoot. Chaiyo, Y., & Nokham (2017) investigated the effect of using Kahoot on students'concentration, engagement, enjoyment, perceived learning, motivation, and satisfaction. The resultsshow that using this software in the classroom provided many benefits for the learners. On the otherhand, Ares et al. (2018) carried out research to find out the effect of Kahoot as a gamification tool toexplore learning strategies. The results illustrated that the use of Kahoot in a university classroom hadfrequently enhanced students' learning, and this development was more common among students who had accomplished better Kahoot performance.

  • This study was conducted during the Fall Semester of 2018-2019 academic year at the School of ForeignLanguages of a state university in Turkey. The participants of this research were 73 university EFLstudents who were selected through convenience sampling technique. Those participants are in theirfirst year in university, and they were attending compulsory preparatory classes from English Languageand Literature department. While all of the participant students filled in the questionnaire, 19 of them participated in the semi-structured interview.

  • It is evident in Table 1 that a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were utilized as datacollection tools. The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts and a total of 31 items. The first part of thequestionnaire was adapted from the 'Kahoot Application Questionnaire' of Bicen and Kocakoyun(2018), and the second part was adapted from the 'Kahoot Learning Outcomes Questionnaire' ofBenhadj, Messaoudi, Nfissi (2019). While items from number 1 to 19 deal with whether KahootImplementation in the classroom enhances EFL students' engagement and motivation towards learningEnglish, items from number 20 to 31 engage in whether EFL students are content with the languageoutcomes achieved by using Kahoot in the classroom. The items of the questionnaire demonstratedpositive reliability (std. alpha > .80) as a result of the pilot study, which was conducted with 26participants who were excluded from the study later on. Also, semi-structured interviews were usedto reveal the challenges experienced by EFL learners while playing Kahoot in the classroom. Theinterview questions were organized by making use of the examples from the related literature andchecked by another instructor. Each interview took nearly four to five minutes, and the answers were recorded by the researchers.

  • The questionnaire used to collect the intended data includes 2 parts. The first chapter of thequestionnaire adapted from the 'Kahoot Application Questionnaire of Bicen and Kocakoyun (2018) wasutilized to find out whether Kahoot Implementation in the classroom enhances EFL students'engagement and motivation towards learning English, and it includes 19 items with 5 Likert scale. Theresearchers analyzed the data by using SPSS 25, and Table 2 demonstrates the findings of the descriptive statistics of the questionnaire filled by the EFL students.

  • The second part of the questionnaire adapted from the 'Kahoot Learning Outcomes Questionnaire ofBenhadj, Messaoudi, Nfissi (2019) was used to uncover the views of EFL students about the languageoutcomes developed by using Kahoot in the classroom, and it includes 12 items with 5 Likert scale. Thedata obtained from chapter 2 was analyzed by using SPSS 25, and Table 3 sheds light on the findings of the descriptive statistics of the questionnaire filled by the EFL students.

  • The results of this research revealed some notable points about the use of Kahoot as a tool for languagelearning and improvement. The results of the study demonstrated that Kahoot provides many benefitsfor EFL learners, such as helping them gain rapid thinking skills, increasing their interest in the lesson,and creating an energetic and entertaining classroom atmosphere. It is also demonstrated that Kahootimplementation increases the enthusiasm of the students and their motivation towards languagelearning. This outcome is consistent with the studies of Chaiyo and Nokham (2017) and Yürük (2019),who found out that Kahoot provides concentration, engagement, enjoyment, perceived learning,motivation, and satisfaction to foreign language learners. The results of the study also are in parallelwith the results of the study conducted by Bicen and Kocakoyun (2018), who revealed that gamification has an impact on students that renders them more ambitious and motivated.

  • The study also demonstrated that using Kahoot in the classroom is a compelling incentive forcollaboration and competition. As identified by Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016), Kahoot, as an online gameused in a classroom, creates a context in which cooperation and competition are nurtured. It is clearthat gamification fosters cooperation and competition thanks to the communal and cooperativeatmosphere it creates in the classroom environment. This finding of the study is in agreement withWang's (2015) findings, which showed the positive effects of Kahoot on enhanced collaboration and healthy competition.

  • Another important outcome of the study is that EFL learners believe that playing Kahoot helped themimprove their language proficiency. The findings showed that the implementation of Kahoot enabledlearners to improve their vocabulary retention, reading proficiencies and grammar knowledgealongside the others. Besides, Kahoot affected their success and participation in the lesson in a positiveway. This conclusion of the study is supported by the studies of Karatekin (2017), Ares et al. (2018) andUyar (2019), who found out that the use of gamification may serve as an assistance for reading comprehension, vocabulary and general language proficiency development of EFL learners.

  • It is also identified from the study that despite being a highly valuable language learning aid for thestudents, Kahoot implementation may lead to a small number of challenges such as creating anunfamiliar learning atmosphere, neglecting some language skills and other technical problems such asexcessive internet consumption and lagging during the game. This outcome of the present study hassome similarities with the one conducted by Mungania (2003), who conducted a study to see the effectof gamification on language learning and found out that using gamification and technology in theclassroom may not have a direct positive influence on students learning as these facilities are notwelcomed by some students who used to learn through traditional teaching methods. The result of thestudy is also supported by the research of Aqasha and Pei (2009), who suppose that gamification may create some challenges such as technical inadequacies both for the students and teachers.

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